The name of French architect Jean-Pierre Houdin has become a familiar one to researchers of the great Egyptian pyramids, the primary reason being a detailed theory which Houdin has advanced suggesting that many of the blocks used to built the 4,500-year-old Great Pyramid of Giza were raised to their lofty position not by ramps constructed on the outside but by an inner corkscrew series of ramps built on the inside.
An article posted by IBMLive on January 31, 2011, Great Pyramid may hold secret rooms, makes reference to L-shaped rooms cited by Houdin in 2008 as evidence for his theory. The rooms may have been used to maneuver the blocks, and may also contain artifacts.
"Jean-Pierre Houdin, who has been asking for a probe into how the great structure was built, said 3-D simulation and data from American Egyptologist Bob Brier pointed to two secret chambers in the heart of the structure," the article states.
Euronews published an update and an animated video on Feb. 2 entitled "Architect unveils pyramid's secret rooms." Houdin is quoted as saying that he has spent an estimated 35,000 hours of work on the pyramid over a span of 12 years. But while he is convinced the rooms are there, he has so-far been denied access by the Egyptian government, which turned down his request in 2008 to use various non-invasive technologies to search for the rooms.
One of the strongest pieces of evidence for Houdin’s theory comes from a 1986 survey of the pyramid using a density-measuring process called microgravimetry. Although the team's conclusion was that there were no hidden chambers in the structure, their tests did produce one image that they found unable to make sense of, which at the time they ignored. That image, it turns out, bears a strong resemblance to Houdin’s diagrams of an inside, spiraling ramp. See this 2007 article How to Build a Pyramid, by Bob Brier.
Houdin is now laying out hope that scientists from Canada--primarily Xavier Maldague of Laval University along with four students-- will be given the permission he was previously denied, this time using infrared thermography.
Marianne White, with the Montreal Gazette, writes in Quebec scientists to probe Great Pyramid for secret ramp that the infrared cameras Maldague and his crew would use would be placed nowhere near the pyramid, but would instead be set up hundreds of meters away in a nearby hotel. Maldague, she says, was hoping to get approval this year in time to begin testing in 2012.
With Egypt having gravitated into almost total upheaval, only time will tell whether their hopes will be realized any time soon.
Great Pyramid of Giza Research Association
Egypt: Secrets of an Ancient World
Great Pyramid of Giza
Thursday, February 24, 2011
Monday, February 14, 2011
Not that there were very many people living in this remote area of Russia at the time, but there were some. What they reported: A bright light streaking across the sky, a huge flash, an equally huge explosion and a shockwave powerful enough to knock some of them clean off their feet.
We're talking, of course, about the now-famous but still mysterious Tunguska event -- a nuclear-sized explosion that occurred well before the days of nuclear technology and that created a seismic shockwave that was detected hundreds of miles away, wiping out an estimated 800 square miles of forest containing some 80 million trees in the meantime.
"Such was the force of the explosion that horses were thrown down in an area south of Kanska, more than 400 miles distant. Equally remarkable were the flash burns sustained by residents of the sparsely populated region," author Walter Sullivan writes. "A farmer, S. B. Semonov, was sitting on the steps of house house, 40 miles away, when he saw the flash. He instinctively lowered his eyes, but the heat was searing. 'My shirt was almost burned on my body," he told later visitors. When he raised his eyes again, the fire-ball had vanished.
Moments later, the blast hurled him from the steps, leaving him briefly unconscious." (Did a Black Hole Hit Siberia?, 1978, Reader' s Digest).
An online article published by Science@Nasa and edited by Dr. Tony Phillips on the occasion of the event's 100th anniversary, follows the dominant theory by attributing it to a large, exploding asteroid.
"It is estimated the asteroid entered Earth's atmosphere traveling at a speed of about 33,500 miles per hour. During its quick plunge, the 220-million-pound space rock heated the air surrounding it to 44,500 degrees Fahrenheit. At 7:17 a.m. (local Siberia time), at a height of about 28,000 feet, the combination of pressure and heat caused the asteroid to fragment and annihilate itself, producing a fireball and releasing energy equivalent to about 185 Hiroshima bombs."
As to be expected, numerous theories have been introduced over the years ascribing the blast to everything from black holes to advanced weaponry, to anti-matter and exploding alien spacecraft.
One of the best sources of information on the event is the University of Bologna in Italy, which maintains a dedicated website on the incident. See: University of Bologna: Department of Physics.
In 2007, scientists from the university announced that a small, bowl-shaped lake called Lake Cheko was being researched as a possible impact crater resulting from a fragment in the Tunguska explosion.
A statement on the university's site reads: "On June 30th, 1908, something exploded 8 km above the Stony Tunguska river. About 2,150 square kilometres of Siberian taiga were devastated and 80 millions trees were overthrown. Up to now, it is not clear whether the great explosion was due to a comet or an asteroid or something else. We are searching for an answer."
Almost as fascinating as the physics behind such an amazing event, whatever it may be, is the impact of such a sudden catastrophe on the human psyche. One belief among some of the locals was that the blast was due to a curse from the god Ogdy/Agdy, the Evenki god of thunder. See this account from social anthropologist Joachim Otto Habeck on the Evenki view of the Tunguska event.
Russian scientist Vladimir Shaidurov of the Russian Academy of Sciences proposed a theory in 2006 that the Tunguska event may have played a role in the global warming phenomenon.
"Current global warming models show that the rise in carbon dioxide emissions neatly coincides with the onset of the industrial revolution, but Shaidurov’s own analysis of yearly mean temperature changes over 140 years indicate that there was actually a slight cooling in temperature up until the early twentieth century. Shaidurov believes that it was not the industrial revolution that caused the rise in temperature, but the catastrophe known as the Tunguska event, or Tungus meteorite," notes a story entitled Tunguska Event Responsible for Warming Climate, published March 27, 2006.
Shaidurov's paper was submitted on Oct. 6, 2005 and is available here: Atmospheric hypotheses' of Earth's global warming.
Shaidurov's first hypothesis: "The Tungus meteorite considerably changed the theormoprotective properties of the earth's atmosphere and turned out to be one of the agencies which launched global warming."
A second hypothesis is presented after a discussion of a number of atmospheric changes leading to a "self-stimulated process." It states: "The above mentioned variant of self-stimulated process (with a permanent rise of average humidity, and resulting concentration of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases) was launched in 1908 after the atmosphere reconstruction due to the Tungus meteorite."
Given that the Tunguska event happened at a time well before the advent of high tech video, satellite surveillance and supercomputer simulations, we may never know exactly what happened on that frightful morning of June 30, 1908 in Siberia.
But the next time it happens--which they estimate will occur every 300 years or so--you can rest assured the evidence it yields will be far more than we can imagine.
For further reference:
Planetary Science Institute
Tunguska event on Wikipedia
Notes on photos:
Photo one shows the small, bowl-shaped Lake Cheko on June 30, 2008. Scientists at the University of Bologna believe it may be a possible impact crater that was created at the time of the Tunguska event.
Photo two is a 3-D reconstruction of the morphology of Lake Cheko. The water level in the reconstruction is placed 49 meters below the actual level.
Photos are used with permission giving full credit and acknowledgment to the Tunguska Page of Bologna University.
Sunday, February 6, 2011
This video does not give a lot of specifics but it is interesting. In simple terms, the challenge is all about avoiding sharp bends while inverting a circle with the unusual characteristic of having a surface that can pass through itself.
I urge you to watch a second video discussing the process in detail. It is presented here: "Sphere Inside Out Part II."
You can question the exercise's relevancy, but in my opinion solving such mathematical puzzles is inherently valuable if not for exercising the human mind alone. Both the mathematical calculations needed to solve it and the animation are admirable.
Posted by Steve Rensberry